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巩膜炎

简介:

? ? ? ?巩膜为一细胞与血管均少,大部由胶原组成的组织。其表面为球结膜及球筋膜所覆盖,不与外界环境直接接触,所以很少患病。据多数学者统计其发病率仅占眼病患者总数的0.5%左右。由于巩膜的基本成分的胶原性质,决定了其病理过程缓慢及所致的胶原紊乱难于修复。眼球是胶原的“窗口”,因此巩膜炎(scleritis)常是全身结缔组织疾病的眼部表现。

分类:

根据炎症侵犯巩膜或表层巩膜组织中的部位,症状及预后,一般公认将巩膜炎分为以下类型(一)表层巩膜炎 :早表层巩膜炎在临床上分为两型: 1.单纯性表层巩膜炎(simple episcleritis)2.结节性表层巩膜炎(nodular episcleritis)(二)深层巩膜炎:⑴弥漫性前巩膜炎(diffuse anterior scleritis) ⑵结节性前巩膜炎(nodular anterior scleritis) ⑶坏死性前巩膜炎(necrotizing anterior scleritis)

临床症状:

? ? ? ?后巩膜炎最常见的症状有程度不同的疼痛、视力减退、眼红,但也有一些人没有明显症状或仅有这些症状中的一种。重症病例有眼睑水肿、球结膜水肿、眼球突出或复视或两者皆有。症状与眼眶蜂窝组织炎难以区别。

鉴别诊断:

? ? ? ?其鉴别点在于本病的水肿程度较蜂窝织炎为明显,而蜂窝织炎的眼球突出,则又较后巩膜炎为显着。疼痛轻重不等,有的甚轻,有的极度痛苦,常与前部巩膜炎受累的严重程度成正比。病人可能主诉眼球本身痛或疼痛涉及眉部、颞部或颧颞部。视力减退是常见的症状,其原因是伴有视神经视网膜病变。有些人主诉由于近视减轻或远视增加而引起视力疲劳,这是后巩膜弥漫性增厚导致眼轴缩短,更换镜片可使症状缓解。临床和病理方面均可见,后巩膜炎病人都有前部巩膜受累,表现有穹窿部浅层巩膜血管扩张、斑片状前巩膜炎、结节性前巩膜炎。也可没有眼部充血。但有疼痛和眼充血的病史,或可能已局部用过皮质类固醇治疗。眼球突出、上睑下垂和眼睑水肿,可见于重症巩膜周围炎,这种炎症常扩散到眼外肌或眼眶。因眼外肌炎症可有眼球转动痛或复视。这些症状合并在一起就被称为巩膜周围炎、巩膜球筋膜炎和急性前部炎性假瘤。此外还有一种病变更为表浅,表现为明显的眼球筋膜炎,而巩膜则无明显炎症,James称之为胶冻性眼球筋膜炎。球结膜呈半胶冻状橙红色水肿,如鱼肉状,触之稍硬,压迫时有轻度凹陷,病变可延伸到角膜缘,而眼内仍然正常。但亦有严重者,病变可侵及巩膜而成为胶冻状巩膜炎。

眼底病变:

①界限清楚的眼底肿块:局限性巩膜肿胀区可引起脉络膜隆起。通常围以同心的脉络膜皱褶或视网膜条纹。这类炎症结节常伴有眶周围疼痛,但也可以患病而无明显症状在常规检查中才发现。②脉络膜皱襞、视网膜条纹和视盘水肿:这是巩膜炎的主要眼底表现。病人常伴有轻度疼痛或穹窿部眼球表层血管充血。邻近视盘之巩膜炎症,偶可致视盘水肿。③环形脉络膜脱离:有些病例邻近巩膜炎病灶处可见略呈球形的脉络膜脱离,但环形睫状体脉络膜脱离更常见。④渗出性黄斑脱离:青年女性后巩膜炎可致后极血-视网膜脱离,这种脱离只限于后极部。眼底荧光血管造影可见多处针尖大小的渗漏区。超声扫描显示眼后极部各层变厚和眼球筋膜水肿。 基于上述,Benson(1982)指出,对原因不明的闭角型青光眼、脉络膜皱褶、视盘水肿、界限清楚的眼底肿块、脉络膜脱离和滪性视网膜脱离等,均应想到此病的可能。西医常规治疗不再赘述

魏医生的中医辩证经验:

? ? ? ?中医认为巩膜炎属于火疳范畴,多由心肺积热、火毒侵袭、风湿内扰、妇女血热等引起,病因病机是肺热蕴结,导致肺失肃降,气血瘀滞。

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